Category Archives: education
I was half asleep, my head on the desk. I’d been in South Korea for about a month, though the school had only been open for a few days.
I was one of the first teachers at a brand new school, and I had no teaching experience. Our boss had no experience running an English school either, though he did already own a small kindergarten.
The secretary stepped into the teacher’s room. “You have a class.”
Really? I shook out the cobwebs and walked down the hall to the sparkling new classroom. At a table sat a 13-year-old boy, calm and expressionless with a notebook open in front of him. Two children rolled and played on the floor.
The boy and I chatted. What’s your name? How old are you? Where are you from?
He spoke English quite well, sitting up straight with his hands folded in his lap. I told the two kids on the floor to join us. One hit the other, and they both started screaming.
This was my class?
Welcome to EFL teaching
EFL stands for English as a Foreign Language, also known as ESL, English as a Second Language.
This isn’t your high school English class, writing essays and reading The Great Gatsby, but teaching the English language to people who speak another language.
There are three things to know before you pursue a career in EFL: the requirements, which country to choose, and how to find the right type of school.
A common misconception is that anyone who speaks English can teach EFL, though in a way this is true. Any motivated, hardworking English speaker could find an entry-level EFL teaching job somewhere in the world.
But not everyone will be good at it. Some people aren’t cut out to be teachers, and you really won’t know if you’re good at it you unless you give it try.
There’s a lot more to teaching English than simply speaking it as a native language or even knowing grammar. (Though you should learn grammar – get a copy of The Elements of Style or Essentials of English.)
Another common misconception about teaching English in a foreign country is that if you teach in Mexico, you need to speak Spanish. Or if you teach in Japan, you need Japanese, and so forth. This is not true. In fact, you will give a more effective class if you teach only in English, even for beginners.
However, once you leave the classroom, you’ll obviously need the local language in everyday life. Make the effort – it will make your experience much better. I always thought there was something strange about language teachers who aren’t interested in learning other languages.
For decent teaching jobs in most parts of the world, the basic requirement is a four-year bachelor’s degree in anything. They will want to see your diploma and transcripts, so make sure you bring originals, along with backup copies or digital photos.
For better job prospects and to learn a little about how to be a teacher, a TESL/TEFL/TESOL certificate will help. They are the same. TESOL/TESL means Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
Most courses teach teaching methods, lesson planning, and advanced English grammar. Also, most good ones include a practicum, where you must find an ESL school, observe classes, and get some teaching practice.
You can do a course in a physical school or online. To find a school, just Google “TESL” (or one of its variations) and the closest city. You may find a course in a community college or an ESL school, where foreigners go to study English.
An online course is a good option. The price will tell you how reputable it is. For a complete curriculum, such as what you would learn in a classroom, expect a price of around $1,000 USD. This may not include the price of the practicum.
You can find a cheapie certificate online for as low as $100, and some schools might accept it. But for schools that require it, it may not be enough.
For example, if you want to work at a reputable school in Canada, you need a TESL certificate that is recognized by an organization called TESL Canada. I got mine online from a school called Coventry House at ontesol.com.
However, these courses aren’t necessary for many entry-level jobs. Take a look at the requirements for jobs in the country you want to teach in. The type of job that requires a TESL certificate may also require experience, usually two years. You can always do a TESL course after your first year teaching.
And honestly, these courses do not fully prepare you for being a teacher. You learn to be a teacher by teaching and asking advice from more experienced coworkers.
Many schools understand this, and there is such a demand for teachers in some countries (especially South Korea, Japan and Taiwan) that someone with no experience and no certification other than a bachelor’s degree can easily find a job.
Other requirements depend on the country and type of school. You will find many schools that want previous experience as a teacher, often more than two years.
Take a look at some ads online to get an idea of what specific countries and types of schools are looking for.
Where to go
Where do you want to go: Asia, Europe, Latin America, Africa?
Jobs are available everywhere in the world, including cities in English-speaking countries like New York, Vancouver, London, and Melbourne.
Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, the three most developed countries of East Asia, typically offer the most entry-level job opportunities and best pay.
There are jobs in other parts of Asia, like China or Thailand, but with no experience you may get paid very little.
The same goes for Latin America – plenty of opportunities, low pay. But if you are thinking long term, after a year or two you will have more opportunities with better pay and benefits, such as universities.
Europe can be tricky because there are so many multilingual people already living there. Most schools require experience, often a minimum of two years.
Some of the most lucrative jobs in EFL are in Saudi Arabia and Dubai. Private schools offer large tax-free income and loads of benefits, but usually ask for a minimum of two years experience. If you really want to go, consider getting your experience elsewhere and then moving on.
Dave’s ESL Café is the best resource for finding a job online. Spend some time on the site – get to know which countries are hiring and what the requirements and benefits are. You’ll get an idea of the types of schools available in various countries: elementary/high schools, small private schools, government schools, universities.
Search for other sites, articles like this one, or specific schools. You may not want to get a job off the internet, but at least you can get some knowledge about the teaching market of a country that interests you.
For an entry-level teaching job, your best option is a small language school, often called academies, cram schools, or its name in the local language (hogwan in Korea, for example).
These may be for kids, adults, or both.
If for kids, you will probably teach kindergarten in the morning and then school-age kids in the afternoon. This is a great place to learn how to teach, because there’s less pressure to know what you are doing. If you teach adults, you’d better know grammar.
Berlitz, for example, is an international company that focuses on adults, often business people. Many schools like Berlitz have classes in the early morning and late afternoon and a long break mid-day. Or you will teach in companies and factories, traveling to them on public transportation all over town.
Teaching university almost always requires experience, but these can be some of the best jobs in EFL, with good pay, good benefits, and vacation time. The same goes for elementary/middle/high schools, although you might find these more challenging because of larger class sizes and discipline problems with immature students.
In many countries you will make a lot of money teaching private lessons. So when weighing your options, don’t only look at how much the pay is, but what your schedule will be like. A job with fewer hours per week gives you more time to teach private lessons. But be ethical; don’t take students from your employer.
Two options to get the job
To get a job, you can find one beforehand (probably online), or travel to your country of choice and hit the streets.
Finding a job beforehand has advantages, especially for first-time teachers. The school may pay for your flight. They may even pick you up from the airport. You won’t have the stress of getting around a new country, dealing with a new language, and worrying about your money running out. Most will provide an apartment.
The downside of getting a job while still at home is that you won’t know exactly what you are getting into. I got my first teaching job in South Korea from home, and I was lucky: My boss was honest – we became friends even – and he kept to the contract.
Many people aren’t so lucky. They find out that they will have to work strange hours. Or they are underpaid and given a dingy apartment. Or they have a long commute. The point is that you won’t know until you get there, though it’s a good idea to speak with other English teachers at the school.
And not all good jobs advertise online. For example, you’ll rarely find a good university job on Dave’s ESL Café.
And if you don’t have a bachelor’s degree and still want to teach EFL, you’ll have to search for small, independent schools that will hire you just because you are a native speaker. These places don’t often advertise online for teachers.
So the second choice is for the adventurous: fly to the country you’re interested in and hit the streets. That’s what I did here in Mexico.
Finding a job in person has many advantages. You can find the jobs that aren’t advertized online. Ask around, look for advertisements in university newspapers – you will find the schools.
More importantly, you can get a face-to-face interview and weigh your options. You can see the school, meet the person who will be paying you, and take a look around the neighborhood you will be living in.
Of course, this method has disadvantages – the greatest being that you may run out of money while on the job search.
Also, if you find a job in person they may not pay for your flight or your apartment, and you may have to apply for the working visa by yourself.
What to expect
You can expect stress, confusion, frustration, maybe homesickness, and possibly a broken contract.
Be as patient and flexible as possible, in and outside of the classroom. Dealing with a new culture takes time. Even after years, you won’t fully understand certain social conventions.
There’s a time to be firm as well. Make sure you get what you’ve been promised, especially if you agree to a contract while still back home.
During my two years in Korea, I learned how to teach. I traveled all over South Korea. I traveled to China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Philippines. At the end I went back to the Philippines for three months of beaches, scuba diving, and forgetting about classrooms full of small children.
13 years and four countries later, and I’m a university professor and translator in Mexico. I never planned on making EFL a career. I just wanted to see the world from the inside, not be a tourist, but a resident.
It was a good decision.
This is a guest post from my friend Rodney who writes about learning real Spanish, especially Mexican Spanish. You can find links to his blogs at the bottom of this post.
As a language teacher, in general I think there are two ways to teach a language – the authentic way and any other way (for lack of a better term). The “other” way is used in the books I have to teach English with – lots of photos, sidebars, disorder and nonsense.
Another way was how I learned Spanish in school. We did endless drills of conjugating verbs. Sure, that’s important, but it won’t get you speaking.
On his blogs Rodney teaches it the authentic way. He just gives it to you straight.
I’ve learned a lot from his lessons, and here’s an interesting one he sent me for a guest post.
You never know where your Spanish will take you when you’re shooting the breeze with your compas (buddies), especially if you’re out chupando unas frias (drinking some cold ones). Like talking about lesbians.
The word for lesbian in Spanish is lesbiana. Pretty simple and easy to remember right? But there are quite few words that are much more colorful and fun that you need to know about, so let’s get to it.
The first word we’re going to talk about is tortillera. A tortillera is actually a woman who makes tortillas, but it’s also a way of referring to a lesbiana.
Are you a lesbian?
Desde que soy tortillera veo la vida de otro modo
Since I’m a lesbian I see life another way
Lo sabemos que era tortilla
We knew she was a lesbian
I’m a lesbian
The word arepera also means lesbian, and for the record an arepera is woman who makes arepas. While I’m positive everyone knows what a tortilla is, you may not know what an arepa is. Click here to see one. I can tell you from first-hand experience that they’re delicious. You can equate them to gorditas in Mexico.
You most likely won’t hear the word arepera in Mexico. You’ll need to keep this one in your back pocket for your Venezuelan and Colombian friends. Arepa is also a way to refer the female anatomy in Colombia and Venezuela.
Esas viejas son areperas
Those broads are lesbians
Confieso que soy arepera
I confess that I’m a lesbian
Bollera is another term for lesbiana. You’ll definitely hear it Spain, but I think it’s pretty well known everywhere. By the way, bolla is a term that refers to the vagina.
¿Soy bollera y qué?
I’m a lesbian and what about it?
Machorra is the word you want when you talk about women who look and act like more like men than women. We call them studs, dykes or bull dykes. Think of it as the woman who is clearly the male of the relationship.
There are a couple of more terms that I’ll mention like torta and maricona, but here’s a great link if you want to learn even more words for lesbianas.
¿Como le dicen a las lesbianas en tu pais? (What do you call lesbians in your country?)
That’s it for today! Now you have more than enough words to spice up your conversations about lesbians. And if you’re wondering whether or not these words are offensive. Well, the answer is yes. Or at the very least you should assume they are. You know the drill, some words are not offensive to some and highly offensive to others, so you’ve been warned. I suggest you talk to your Spanish speaking friends and get their advice.
Be sure to read about my upcoming post on relaciones lésbicas, how to talk about lesbian sex on my blog Swearing in (Mexican) Spanish.
I’m a Spanish language addict and author of the following blogs:
My Spanish Notes
No book Spanish, Just real Spanish I learn from real conversations
Swearing in (Mexican) Spanish
Explore all of the bad words (Mexican) Spanish has to offer
Helping You Learn Spanish
Making Spanish simple to help you transition from a Spanish student to a Spanish speaker
Obviously this issue is a lot more complex than one blog post. These books I recommend do not necessarily address why the U.S. is rich, but are about why in some ways (certainly not culturally) much of Latin America was left behind in development. I welcome your comments…
Updated November 2016
Anyone who’s traveled in both halves of the continent can’t miss the great divide in economic development between the Americans north and south of the Rio Grande. Walk across the border between El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Or venture into the mountains above ritzy Ipanema beach in Rio de Janeiro to visit a favela, the name for the countless “illegal” settlements in Brazil, most with electricity and internet but no running water.
Mexican university students, especially those who have traveled, ask me in class, Why is Latin America poor but the U.S. is rich?
I ask them what they think the answer is, and I usually get corruption, laziness, bad government, or bad luck. From time to time, one will answer, “We are stupid.”
If you ask a progressive-type north of the border, you will hear globalization, capitalism, and corporations, forces believed by many Mexicans to be the solutions to their economic woes.
To unravel this mystery, I recommend five books: Open Veins of Latin America by Eduardo Galeano, 1491 by Charles C. Mann, Guns Germs and Steel by Jared Diamond, Confessions of an Economic Hitman by John Perkins, and The Mystery of Capital by Hernando de Soto.
Click the photo of any book for more information.
Reason 1: Colonization
For the most part, the English and French colonists in the U.S. and Canada came to live, while the Spanish conquistadors came to Mexico and Peru looking for resources to send back to Spain.
It’s an ironic truth that resource-rich countries are some of the economically poorest on Earth, while on average resource-poor countries (like England or Japan) have been more successful. This is called the resource trap. In Latin America, gold was first sought after, then silver, sugar, coffee –- you name it. Eduardo Galeano tells this story in Open Veins of Latin America.
First came Spain and Portugal, replaced by England during the industrial revolution. The Catholic Church’s prohibition of usury gave England a great opportunity to allow money lending, and therefore raise much more capital than Catholic countries. Later the U.S., with leaders who considered Latin America to be their subservient backyard, took the reins from England.
I challenge the staunchest supporter of capitalism and free markets to read this book. Then read Confessions of an Economic Hitman (see below) for more about current, cutting-edge exploitation methods.
Reason 2: Diseases
This is well known: European diseases ravaged Native American populations.
The thesis of 1491 by Charles C. Mann is that America was heavily populated with advanced societies before Columbus came. Some scientists estimate that as many as 100 million people lived in the New World. They had great cities, advanced societies, and manipulated nature, not simply living in perfect harmony with it.
Smallpox came from Europe, where it had existed for such a long time that Europeans developed immune system protection. Europeans didn’t die from smallpox. But because it was Native Americans’ first exposure to these diseases, they were fatal and highly contagious. Often the diseases came generations before the conquistadors, spread by other native people. Some communities are estimated to have lost as much as 90% of their populations long before the colonists even visited. And, although there were big cities in the present-day U.S., the largest and most advanced civilizations were in present-day Latin America.
In Guns Germs and Steel by Jared Diamond, we learn why Europe had so many more diseases than pre-Columbus America (or Africa, or Australia). Europeans had all the big, domesticated animals –- the beasts of burden. Humans lived with animals and diseases jumped between them, as if they were filthy petri dishes heaped at the bottom of a trash can.
In America (the continent), there were no horses, no cows, no pigs, none of the big domestic animals. The Incas had llamas, but in Mexico they only had dogs, which were a food source incidentally.
The tour de force Guns Germs and Steel traces the history of world development and how it differed on each continent. The question he poses in the book is similar to mine: Why did Europeans colonize North America, and not the other way around?
In short, Diamond answers with technology and immunity to disease — guns, germs and steel.
Reason 3. Corruption and Bad Governments
Ok, now I challenge staunch supporters of socialism and government regulation to read The Mystery of Capital by Hernando de Soto. While it certainly isn’t a love letter to free markets, it shows how huge amounts of regulation makes it practically impossible to use legal channels to buy land, transfer property, or open a business in developing countries, including Mexico and Peru.
In Egypt, for example, 77 bureaucratic procedures, 31 agencies and 5 to 14 years are needed to acquire a piece of land, which comes with no guarantee that the deed won’t be revoked by the next ministry that comes to power while the paperwork processes. So naturally, bribery is much easier.
The title of the book refers to the huge amount of “dead capital” in developing countries. Dead capital is informal capital, property that has no title or legal recognition, owned by the world’s poor in developing countries. If a person trades or scavenges for building material and makes their own home in a slum (like the favelas of Brazil), they don’t legally own it and therefore can’t leverage it as capital.
DeSoto estimates that the value of the savings of the poor is so immense that “It would take the richest country on earth more than 150 years to transfer to the world’s poor resources equal to those they already possess.”
DeSoto doesn’t advocate a removal of regulation, but reform, the creation of standardized, transferable property rights that we in the West take for granted because it developed over such a long time.
Also on the bad government front is Confessions of an Economic Hitman by John Perkins. While The Mystery of Capital is quite academic, Confessions is the kind of book that keeps you on the edge of your seat, blows your mind, and changes your life. It shows you that the colonial period never really ended, but simply evolved into a much more efficient, scary form.
Reason 4: The Wrong Answer
These books will also tell you what the answer is not — that there is some fundamental difference, genetic or cultural, between Latinos and North Americans. There isn’t. Of course cultures are different, and cultures affect society. But, at a fundamental level, human beings are the same, at least at birth. Not equal, of course not, but the same. Anyone who travels extensively and independently most likely understands this on some level.
But hey, don’t take it from me, but from former Rolling Stone Magazine luminary P.J. O’Rourke in his hilarious travel collection Holidays in Hell:
“Finally, people are exactly alike. There’s no such thing as a race and barely such a thing as an ethnic group. If we were dogs, we’d be the same breed. George Bush and an Australian aborigine have fewer differences than a lhasa apso and a toy fox terrier. A Japanese raised in Riyadh would be an Arab. A Zulu raised in New Rochelle would be an orthodontist.”